Dumanjug is a 3rd class municipality in the south western portion of Cebu Province and is 73 kilometers from Cebu City. It takes about one and a half hours travel by private cars and two hours by public transport from Cebu City to reach the municipality.
It is situated within the geographic coordinates of 10°01’ 07” to 10°02’00” north latitude and 123°24’11” to 123°32’15”east longitude bounded between the Municipalities of Barili in the north and Ronda in the south. On the eastern border are the Municipalities of Sibonga and Argao while on the western side is the Tañon Strait.
It is politically subdivided into 37 barangays of which 8 are coastal. Its population is 44,807 based on 2007 census. Dumanjug has gained importance as the gateway transhipment point between south western Cebu and northern Negros Oriental where business and trade are present.
Based on the Cadastral Survey Map of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), the Municipality has an effective land area of 8,544 hectares. It has a total number of 37 barangays: Barangay Tubod-Duguan, having a land area of 556.69 hectares being the biggest, and Barangay Sima ,with a land area of 85.16 hectares being the smallest. There are eight coastal barangays namely: Kanyuko, Bitoon, Tangil, Tapon, Poblacion, Looc, Calaboon and Camboang.
Majority of lands are classified as alienable and disposable (A&D). Only a portion of the central western area of the municipality is timberland. The timberland area, however, in the municipality is confronted with technical problem like actual use. Such agriculture. A small portion in the eastern and coastal area of the municipality, on the other hand, is reserved for fishpond purposes. Several forestry – related programs are being introduced by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) in the area.
The terrain of Dumanjug is generally a mixture of plain land to rolling hills and sloping mountains. About 37.18% of the land is within 8 – 18% slope followed by 31.02% of the land area within 30 – 50% slope, which is considered as steep slope. The rest of the area are relatively plain to rolling.
The municipality is enjoying the services of a Level I,II and III water system. Various private associations are managing the water system of some barangays. The majority, those which are not serviced by the municipal water system, are managed by the Barangay themselves. Only few are still using the artesian well as water source.
Dumanjug has only one river system with head water from the Municipality of Sibonga and drains to Dumanjug. The entire river system is known as Bogasok river.
The town of Dumanjug belongs to third type of climate, which is characterized by no very pronounced maximum rain period, but with a short dry season lasting from one to three months. The distribution of rainfall shows that March to April is the relative short dry season and heavy rain falls in October. The municipality is sheltered from the northeast monsoon and trade winds. However it is exposed to southeast monsoon for at least to frequent storms.
There are five (5) types of soil in the Municipality, namely: the Hydrosol, the Lugo Clay , Bolinao Clay, the Faraon Clay, and the Mandawe clay. Lugo and Bolinao Clays are the dominant soil types in Dumanjug, covering almost ¾ of the entire municipality. These soil types traverse from the southeastern to the northeastern and southwestern parts of the Municipality.
The varied slope and soil classification of the area shows five(5) types of erosion potentials; no apparent erosion, slight erosion, moderate erosion, severe erosion and unclassified erosion. Nearly 60% of the total land area of the municipality is considered with no apparent erosion to slight erosion potentials.
Majority of lands are classified as alienable and disposable(A&D). Only a portion of the central western area of the municipality is timberland which is currently used for agro-forestry productions.
Actual land uses of the entire municipality showed that a large portion of the land is devoted to agricultural production with an area of 4,755 has. and followed by built – up area covering 1,145.44 has. The rest of the area are utilized for residential, commercial, foreshore and forest land.
The municipality has no identified metallic mineral reserves. However, it has two non-metallic minerals of commercial quantity; these are dolomite of high grade quality found in barangay Calaboon and phosphates covering the most in barangays Balaygtiki, Matalao, Kanghumaod, Kabalaasnan and Bullogan.
Out of the 6,458 hectares which are alienable and disposable land, only 3,016 lots which translates to 2,690.3238 has. are administratively titled. There are 239 lots turned over to the Department of Agrarian Reform under Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP)and a total of 2,961 lots equivalent to 2,064.0174 has. remaining to be titled.
There are also 179 Certificate of Stewardship Contract (CSC) issued to actual occupants of some portions of the timberland area constituting 194.875 hectares.
The Municipality also has a 140 meter x 5 meter Roll-On Roll Off (RORO) port situated in Barangay Tangil which serves as the gateway of southwestern part of Cebu to Guihulngan, Negro Oriental. There are two shipping companies serving the passengers and cargoes from as early as 3:00 A.M until 12:00 midnight.
There are very few developed beaches in the locality that cater primarily to local residents. However there are possible potential prospects that need to be developed for tourism purposes. Existing land use plan has already identified these possible areas and classified them to be recreational zones for future development projects.
Most of the fisherfolks, especially those using hook and line, make use of these beaches for docking of their canoes.
The Municipality of mostly covered by agricultural crops and coconut trees. This connotes enough raw materials to existing home industries that would utilize agricultural products specifically coconut trees as materials. However, there are some patches that grow along river banks.
The Municipality has still to explore number of caves for possible tourism purposes. In Barangays Kanguha and Balaygtiki, several small-scale operators are extracting phosphate and guano deposits but their volume is still insignificant for mass production.
In Barangay Tubod-Duguan, a small underground river has been considered for possible tourism. A cave in Barangay Kang-actol also holds potential for eco-tourism.
There are eight Barangays declared by the Municipality as watershed areas namely Kabalaasnan, Kanguha, tubod-Duguan, Kanghalo, Pawa, Paculod and Kanghumaud that supports the tributaries of the river of Dumanjug. These sites are tributaries of the Bogasok River.
Dumanjug is not a prime tourist destination in Cebu Province. Most of its tourism-related activities are inter-local and domestic in nature. Inter-local activities are related to mostly business transactions in the municipality. Visitors transacting business in the municipality are considered “same day visitors” who were just staying in the municipality for less than 24 hours and are travelling either for occupational or trade activities. Domestic activities related to tourism, meanwhile are confined mostly to barangay/town fiestas, sports festivals, holidays and special local affairs.
Several lodging houses are already operational with adequate facilities to cater tourists and transient travellers. The facilities to compliment tourism related activities include roads, power, water and other infrastructures support.
Majority of the existing industrial establishments in Dumanjug are those of micro-scale industries or establishments. These include bakeshops, welding shops, and cottage industries. Their products are mostly bakery products, assembled vehicles and handicrafts. Most of these establishments are found in Barangay Poblacion. Five gasoline stations are serving the municipality located in barangay Poblacion, Tapon and Bitoon.
On the other hand, there are four (4) existing rice and corn mill operating in the municipality to serve the rice and corn farmers in the municipality.
There are potential industrial activities or industrial ventures that could be established in the locality. Among these are mining, coco wood processing, and other similar industries which would make use of its mineral, natural and manpower resources. As to the mining industry, the municipality has considerable quantity of high-grade dolomite and large phosphate reserves found in barangays Kanghumaod, Balaygtiki, Bullogan, Kabalaasnan, Matalao and Kabatbatan.
POPULATION, DEMOGRAPHY AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS
Dumanjug’s population is characterized mainly by an increasing birth rate and a gradually declining mortality rate. The growth in population is thus greatly attributed to high birth rates over deaths. The 2007 NSO Census on population showed that the municipality has a total population of 44,807 individuals representing 9629 households registered in the entire municipality.
The bulk of the household population was concentrated in the coastal barangays located in the western part of the municipality. The urban area comprising barangays Poblacion, Sima, Ilaya, and Looc still corner the biggest chunk of the population. The rest of barangays of Bitoon, Tangil, Tapon, Balaygtiki, Cogon and Liong are catching up with the urban barangays in terms of household population. With the urban area fast becoming into a commercial hub, barangays Bitoon, Paculob, Cogon and Liong are foreseen to be upcoming bedroom communities in the municipality.
The outflow of people in favor to urban centers and cities in the country is also prevalent in a rural community like Dumanjug. Yet, despite this movement, Dumanjug’s population continues to grow, in fact almost at a level of provincial rate.
Majority of Dumanjuganons spoke Cebuano. Only an insignificant number of its population spoke other domestic dialects.
The Municipality’s thrust for quality education is evident by the presence of 34 Day Care Centers under the Office of the Municipal Social Welfare & Development. It also has private pre-school institutions and learning centers. Under the elementary level, the municipality is divided into 2 districts, Dumanjug District 1 and Dumanjug District 2.
There are seven existing secondary schools operating in the locality, six are run by the Department of Education and the rest by religious institution.
There are two tertiary or college institution present in Dumanjug. One is offering technical courses related to Information Technology while the other one (Cebu Technological University) offers selected short-term and baccalaureate degrees to serve the growing population of Dumanjug and other neighboring towns as well.
At present there are still elementary schools that need more classrooms, libraries and home economics buildings.
Health programs and projects that are being implemented in the municipality consist of basic health services such as Maternal and Child Health, Communicable Disease Control, Disease Prevention, Environmental Sanitation, Family Planning, Primary Health Care, TB DOTS, Leprosy Control Program, Cardiovascular Disease Program, Cancer Detection Program, Sexually Transmitted Disease Program, H1N1 Prevention Program, Medicare Para sa Masa Program (PhilHealth) and Laboratory Services. The provincial government has also stationed a dentist to cater the dental needs of the constituents.
Delivery of basic health services were provided by the Municipal Health Office in collaboration with its 8 barangay health stations. Currently the Municipal Health Office is manned by one (1) Municipal Health Officer, three (3) Nurses, one (1) Dentist, two (2) Medical Technologists, one (1) Sanitary Inspector and eight (8) Midwives. The eight barangay Health Stations were also served by these personnel with the aide of the Barangay Health Workers. The nearest hospital where referrals are sent is the Barili District Hospital.
The municipality enjoyed a high birth rate over death especially now that Birthing Stations are already established. As of 2008, total number of livebirths and deaths reached 1,072 and 129 respectively. More males are born than females, indicating male population in the coming years. Among age groups, total deaths attributed mostly to adult deaths. Ratio of infant death and child death to total number of deaths corner 5 percent and 3 percent respectively.
Top five causes of adult deaths are 1) semile antescleorosis, 2) cardiac arrest, 3) cancer, 4) pneumonia 5) homicide. Prematurity, acute gastro-enteritis and pneumonia are major causes of deaths among infants, aged 0 to 11 months; while child deaths, aged 1 to 5 years old, are mainly caused by pneumonia.
Per Standard set by the Municipal Health Office Staffing pattern which are: one Municipal Health Officer for every 20,000 population, 1 Public Health Nurse for every 20,000 population, 1 Sanitary Inspector for every 20,000 population and 1 Midwife for every 5,000 population, the Municipality generally has not met the standard requirements with the population as August 1, 2007 reaching 44,807.
The problem on the lack of medicines has been more or less addressed by the Local Government Unit with its regular procurement of medicines.
The solid waste disposal of the municipality is anchored on the daily collection of garbage by the disposal team which caters not only in the Poblacion areas but also to the adjacent barangays. It uses a controlled dumpsite which is situated five kilometers from the poblacion area. The problem on the segregation of garbage is partly addressed by the on-going implementation of Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) initiated through the project of the provincial government. There is also the problem on the waste-water treatment of the slaughter house which needs to be addressed.
The perennial problem on the lack of drainage system especially in the flood prone areas in the Poblacion area has also been partially addressed with the drainage rehabilitation project funded by the provincial government. Awareness on health hazards caused by unsanitary environment still needs to be inculcated to the public in order to lessen health related issues that may arise.
Source of water in most of the barangays is ground water and natural springs. Presently, the municipality is managing the Level III water system in the following barangays namely; (Electric-driven water system) Manlapay, Pawa, Lamak, Cotcoton, Kang-actol, Masa, Kabatbatan, Kanghalo, Tubod-Duguan, Cambanog and Tubod-Bitoon (gravity-driven). In other barangays, community associations are managing the water system.
About 90% of the municipality’s total urban households have availed of the 24-hour electric-driven water system. Each household is estimated to consume an average of 20 to 70 gallons of water per day.
CEBECO I, with its office situated in barangay Bitoon, Dumanjug Cebu, is providing power for the Municipality. While it is true that urban household consume the bulk of power consumption, the electrification of all barangays in the municipality has dramatically increased power consumption in the rural areas.
The southern end of Dumanjug connects the Municipality to the adjacent Municipality of Ronda, while the northern extension provides the link to the Municipality of Barili. These linkages were made possible through the national road. All barangay roads connect to this national road making it the most vital component in the development of Dumanjug, the town of Golden Friendship. This main artery is made up through a mixture of asphalt and concrete material.
The municipality’s total road length runs to 153.85 kilometers. Barangay roads constitute about 65 percent of the total road network. This was followed by the provincial roads that connect the Municipality of Sibonga to Dumanjug covering 24% of the whole network and the rest are national and municipal roads.
All bridges in the Municipality are generally in good condition and are made up of concrete materials. The Manlapay and Tubod-Duguan bridges are maintained by the provincial government, while the other two, the Tangil and Tapon bridges are under the jurisdiction of the national government. Spillways are present in barangays Kanghalo, Masa and Kolabtingon. Those bridges have the loading capacity of 10MT to 15MT. The length of the bridges ranged from 10-38 m and span of 6-8 m (Table 10).
Dumanjug is currently serviced by nine bus operators ( Ceres Bus Line, Librando Trans. Inc., Chan Transit, SM Trans., Rough Riders, Britt, Acop, & Caiban Mini-Bus.)
Local residents used the trisikad to go around the Poblacion area. Motorcycles became the most preferred mode of transportation not just because of its convenience and affordability but because of the high price of gasoline. Habal-habal has also became the mode of transportation in going to and from the upland barangays.
Serving the communication needs of the residents is a postal office, a government-owned telecommunications office, and a Globelines Communications System for the household telephone connections. The Municipality also enjoys coverage from communication companies like Globe, PLDT, Smart & Sun Cellular. One can also connect to anyone in the world through the Internet with Internet Café’s congregating in the Poblacion areas and even in several barangays where there is a Globelines Telephone service. Internet connection is provided Globe Broadband, and some access the internet through mobile data from Globe, Smart and Sun Cellular. By the end of 2016 the Department of Information and Communications Technology aims to provide the municipality of a free and fast wifi internet through local hotspots around the area.
Local and national dailies are available daily. Leading local TV stations are available while Dream Satellite Cable Services , Sky Cable Direct, Danao Cable and Toledo Cable provide all out TV channel coverage, foreign and domestic.
The Municipality also has a Roll-On Roll Off (RORO) port situated in Barangay Tangil. This RORO port serves as the gateway of the part of Cebu to Guihulngan, Negros Oriental.
The Dumanjug Agora Complex is the center of trade & commerce in the Municipality. Within the complex, various commercial establishments have contributed greatly to the movement of goods and generation of revenues. These cover basic goods for daily needs to construction supplies, agri-feeds, dry goods and many more. Sunday is designated as market day wherein various livestock and farm products congregate in the market. Out of town peddlers create an atmosphere of competition and creating opportunities to the local consumers.